As the saying goes, "When Adar arrives, we increase our joy." Adar has two parts to it, pre-Purim and Purim/post-Purim. The first half of the month is a time of grief and mourning that transforms to a time of salvation and celebration on the 14th of Adar. Purim Hit Song - The Maccabeats !!
The Story of Purim The book of Esther takes place when King Ahasuerus ruled Persia and Queen Esther saved the Jewish people. The King commands his Queen (Vashti) to appear naked before him and his guests at a party. She refuses to appear and as a result King Ahasuerus decides to kill her. Once it sinks in that Queen Vashti is gone, he begins a quest for a new queen. Esther, a Jewess is among the young women brought before the king. She is selected to be the new queen. Her cousin Mordechai requests that Esther conceals her Jewish identity from the king.
As the new queen is taking her place in the kingdom, Mordechai is commanded to bow down to the evil Haman, the King's right hand man. Haman's baseless hatred for Mordechai and the Jews leads him to try to have Mordechai and all the Jews put to death. He convinces King Ahasuerus that the Jews do not obey the king's laws and should be put to anihilated. Haman draws a lottery for the date when the edict to kill all Jews will be caried out, "young and old, women and children." The lottery falls out on the 13th day of the month of Adar (Esther 3:13).
When Mordechai learns of this, he instructs Esther to aproach the king for mercy on behalf of the Jewish people. Mordechai tell her that this maybe why she became queen so that she could save her people. Esther decides to fast for 3 days before she goes in front of the king and requests that Jews fast along with her.
She invites the King and Haman to a banquet. Through devine providence the king decides to honor Mordechai because he saved the king by telling him about a plot against the king.
At the banquet, Esther tells the King of Haman's plan to kill her and the Jewish people. The king is furious that Haman would try to hurt the queen. The king then overturns Haman's edict to kill the Jews and orders that Haman to hanged instead.
According to the Book of Esther, no Jews were killed on the thirteenth day of Adar and on the fourteenth day the Jews feasted and celebrated. The holiday is called Purim because Haman cast a lottery "pur" (lottery) against the Jews, but, G-d had another plan and in the end it was Haman and his son's who were hanged on that day instead Mordecai declares this day a holiday to be celebrated every year.